Cystitis in women is an inflammatory process that occurs in the bladder in an acute or chronic form. The disease is also diagnosed in men, but much less often - the anatomy of the urethra plays a role. Most often, the pathology is infectious in nature: pathogenic bacteria enter the urinary system, and in most cases it is E. coli. The main feature of the course of cystitis in women is the frequency of relapses: in 50% of cases, patients consult a doctor about this disease twice a year. Symptoms of cystitis are quite pronounced, so the diagnosis is not difficult.
The causes of the development of the inflammatory process in the bladder in women can be:
- various infectious diseases, including sexually transmitted ones - the penetration of pathogens occurs in the ascending line: from the vagina and urethra;
- the use of cosmetics and personal hygiene products with detergents - cystitis in women in this case is a reaction of the body to aggressive substances in their composition;
- hypothermia against the background of reduced immunity - simply being in the cold cannot be the cause, since cystitis in women develops only against the background of reduced immunity.
Provoking factors include:
- the presence of a chronic infection in the body, regardless of the location of the focus;
- recent gynecological inflammatory diseases, genital infections, acute respiratory viral infections;
- problems with the functionality of the hormonal system in women;
- poor personal hygiene;
- frequent change of sexual partners;
- a general decrease in immunity against the background of a disease, forced long-term use of certain drugs.
Cystitis in women is diagnosed much more often than in men and this is due to the anatomical features of the urinary system. Women have a short and wide urethra, the urethra, vagina and anus are very close to it: pathogenic microorganisms enter the bladder very quickly and easily.
Separately, doctors consider cystitis after sex, which can occur not only in women, but also in men. The classic symptoms of inflammation really scare people, they believe that an infection with a sexually transmitted disease has occurred. In fact, such cystitis in women and men is a reaction of the body to "foreign" microflora. The inflammatory process is treated according to the standard scheme and is not a sexually transmitted disease.
Symptoms of cystitis in women
Whatever the reasons, cystitis in women of an acute form has pronounced signs that are always severe:
- too frequent urination, which has nothing to do with the amount of fluid consumed - a symptom that helps to differentiate cystitis from an increase in blood sugar;
- violation of the outflow of urine - in an emergency, too little urine is released from the urethra, there is a feeling of fullness of the bladder;
- pain syndrome - burning, cramps during urination, localized in the groin, perineum and lower abdomen;
- itching, discomfort and burning sensation in the perineum - not a clear sign, inherent in other diseases;
- urine becomes cloudy, may have an unpleasant odor, a symptom may be the presence of "threads" of blood in the urine;
- general weakness, a slight increase in body temperature is not an obvious sign.
If cystitis in women occurs in a chronic form, then all the listed signs and symptoms will not be pronounced, only with an exacerbation they become intense. Cystitis in chronic form can manifest itself in women only with too frequent urination.
Treatment of cystitis
Before the doctor prescribes treatment for cystitis, urine tests are carried out on women (general and for bacteriological culture). Diagnosis is not difficult, since cystitis is manifested by specific signs and symptoms - it is enough to simply differentiate the disease from other sexually transmitted infections. The appointment of ultrasound, cystoscopy, research for urogenital infections is carried out only if there are individual indications.
Treatment of the inflammatory process of the bladder in women consists in the selection of conservative therapy. Cystitis in women involves the following appointments:
- Antibacterial drugs. The course of treatment is 1-7 days, it all depends on the form and stage of cystitis in a particular woman.
- Symptomatic therapy. In women, cystitis is manifested by severe pain and discomfort, and treatment should be aimed at alleviating the patient's condition. To do this, use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, recommend drinking plenty of water.
- Auxiliary means. Treatment may include herbal uroseptics, bacterial lyophilisates. The evidence base for their efficacy is insufficient, efficacy has not been confirmed, although women have a milder course of the disease (symptoms and signs rapidly become mild) and rapid recovery.
Cystitis in women is treated within 7-10 days, and during this period doctors recommend observing certain dietary restrictions. Refusal of alcoholic beverages, chocolate, hot/hot spices, caffeine will be effective. You need to drink plenty of fluids to improve urination and speed up the process of eliminating pathogenic bacteria.
If cystitis in women takes a long time and treatment is not carried out as directed by a doctor, serious and dangerous complications can develop:
- renal failure;
- the formation of adhesions in the bladder;
- the formation of tumors of a benign or malignant nature;
- bleeding, ulcerative lesions of the walls of the bladder;
- dysfunction of the urinary system.
Cystitis is quite insidious in relation to the psycho-emotional state. Women develop complexes and fears, anxiety and irritation: frequent trips to the toilet, the need to be constantly indoors, pain and discomfort during sex contribute to this.
To reduce the risk of developing cystitis in women, you should follow simple rules of prevention:
- do not overcool;
- visit the toilet at the first call and not endure;
- lead a healthy sex life;
- timely treatment of any infectious processes;
- follow the rules of personal hygiene.
Cystitis is in fact more often diagnosed in women, because men have a slightly different anatomy of the urinary system. Treatment of the disease is not difficult if it is started in a timely manner and according to the doctor's prescription. The only way to help yourself before a visit to the doctor is to take painkillers. Antibiotics and other drugs are selected individually - only in this case the treatment in women will be effective, and cystitis will not turn into a chronic form of the course.