Inflammation of the bladder is easy to recognize, the symptoms of this disease are specific. The patient experiences frequent urges to urinate, but they become increasingly unproductive. It is possible to "extract" a tiny amount of urine, sometimes blood is mixed with it. The process becomes painful, there is a feeling of tightness on the pubic area.<1_img_centerxx>
Signs of cystitis in women
Cases of the disease in women are registered more often than in men. This is due to the female anatomy. The causes of cystitis in women are due to the fact that their urethra is shorter than that of a man with a larger bladder. Its increased volume allows girls to urinate less often. The urine stream naturally flushes pathogens out of the urinary tract. Hence the chain: women are less likely to go to the toilet, pathogens that enter the urethra are rarely washed out, and a short urethra is a quick way of their "delivery" to the urinary organ.
Other causes of cystitis in women: microtrauma of the urethra, infections that can enter through the anus, the vagina. Typical signs of the onset and development of cystitis:
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- sharp painful sensations during the process of urination;
- burning of the urethra;
- unexpected and uncontrolled discharge of drops of urine;
- urine is dark in color, sometimes there is an admixture of blood;
- an increase in temperature (in more acute and severe cases).
Symptoms of inflammation in men
The causes of the disease in men differ from those in women. The chances of getting sick increase with age. The disease is facilitated by:
- urolithiasis disease;
- chronic genital infections;
- stricture (narrowing or complete closure) of the urethra;
- weakened immunity;
- renal pyelonephritis or tuberculosis.
The symptoms appear as follows:
- frequent trips to the toilet (up to 40 times a day), but the resulting single volume of urine is small, about 10-15 ml;
- urinary incontinence ("drip");
- difficulty, pain during urination;
- for the bladder to start emptying, you have to make an effort;
- the beginning and the end of the process are accompanied by pain;
- temperature (in acute forms).
A common cause of infectious cystitis is Escherichia coli, less often chlamydia, candida fungi, and ureaplasma. Besides infections, urethral damage, hypothermia and chronic diseases, other causes also lead to inflammation:
- the external opening of the urinary canal is constantly exposed to (mechanical) irritation;
- the patient is allergic to intimate cosmetics, vaginal deodorant, soap, talc, or even toilet paper;
- in women, one of the causes of the onset of the disease, when urinary incontinence occurs, is called psychosomatic, that is, the release of experiences on the physical plane is the reaction of the bodyto problems;
- cystitis in a child can cause an anatomical abnormality: urine is discharged into the ureters, and the process of its outflow is disturbed.
If blood impurities are visible during urination, then the disease is hemorrhagic. Blood appears not only at the end of urine ejection, but also during the whole process, while all the liquid is colored light pink or cloudy, rusty (these cases are accompanied by a foul odor ofdischarge). If the bleeding is severe, blood clots are released.
With prolonged illness with constant blood loss, the patient develops anemia with iron deficiency. The causes of hemorrhagic cystitis are viral inflammations. This is not uncommon for older men who have a history of prostate adenoma. Exposure to radiation, taking cytostatics (drugs used in oncology, often for pelvic tumors) can cause cystitis with blood. Often the hemorrhagic form of the disease is accompanied by chills, fever.
If you start the disease, not only will anemia develop, but hemorrhagic cystitis will develop into a chronic form. Start treatment on time. Complications that may accompany cystitis with bleeding:
- Tamponade of the bladder, blockage by a blood clot of its lumen. Urine cannot come out, the bladder is strongly stretched.
- Infection: An infection enters through torn blood vessels, which can lead to blood poisoning.
Purulent inflammation of the bladder mucosa, acute cystitis is the most common manifestation of the disease. At the same time, there are no serious concomitant diseases. Most often, this form of the disease occurs in women. Up to 36 million cases of acute cystitis are diagnosed in Russia every year. Symptoms last about a week and are diagnosed based on symptoms and urinalysis.
This form of the disease involves constant inflammation of the urinary organ with temporary remissions and exacerbations. Chronic cystitis occurs as a complication of another disease, it means the onset of severe weakness of the immune system. Chronic inflammation develops against the background of diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The triggering factor for the manifestation of symptoms of previously transferred cystitis is hypothermia.
The chronic course of the disease is complicated by malnutrition, stress, hypovitaminosis and impaired metabolism. The course of the disease is influenced by the composition of human microflora, its biological properties. Officially, a diagnosis such as "chronic cystitis" does not exist in the medical reference literature, rather it is a familiar form for a repeated recurrence of acute cystitis.
What are the causes of cystitis
The bladder is an organ resistant to external influences, covered with a special protective mucosa. The penetration of bacteria and viruses is "ensured" by the patient himself. The causes of cystitis are infections, but the factors that cause them are more associated with a lifestyle in which a person reduces their own defenses. Long and exhausting diet, sitting on cold surfaces, constant fatigue, stress - all this leads to disease.
Factors predisposing to the appearance and development of inflammation of the urinary system:
- Used for a long time to "endure", to postpone the passage to the toilet, even if you really want to. At the same time, the muscle fibers are stretched too much, blood circulation in the wall of the bladder is disturbed.
- Violation of personal hygiene, when microbes from the genitals, rectum, anus walk unobstructed in the bladder. In this case, prevention of contamination is the best cure for the disease.
- Foreign bodies in the lumen of the urethra.
- Swelling of the urethra, bladder.
- Seasonal decrease in immunity, weakening of the body with diseases of various origins.
- Menopause, pregnancy, postpartum period.
- Wear tight, uncomfortable clothing, tight tights and underwear.
Causes of cystitis after sex
It is known that cystitis after intercourse manifests itself in women as a result of vaginal intimacy. The first to suffer from it are those whose urethra is located in a particular way, the urethra is open in front of the vagina. This is a variant of the norm, but with such a structure of the genitourinary system, the vaginal contents enter the urethra and then into the bladder. In this case, the woman and her partner should be careful to avoid mechanical damage to the vagina.